Genetics Criminology Sociology Law Justice Crime Punishment Criminal Behavior Mental Illness Since the beginning of criminological research there has been an ongoing debate on the correlation between genetic characteristics and criminal behavior. There have been numerous studies and experiments conducted to help eliminate some of the unknowns related to the field of biological criminology and genetics. Genetic mutations have been disregarded as a consideration when developing guidelines for the causes of criminal behavior and determining the level of violence involved. Recent studies in behavioral genetics indicate that some violent criminals are genetically predisposed to violent behavior.
What are the Biological Theories of Crime? Rohit Bura Biological Theories of Crime The positivists who used experimental or inductive method in making generalisations rejected the concept of 'free will' advocated by the classicists and the neo-classicists and laid emphasis on the doctrine of 'determinism'.
They paved the way for a philosophy of individualised scientific treatment of criminals, based upon the findings of the physical and social sciences. Lombroso, Ferri and Garofalo were three major positivists who laid stress on the physiological incapacity of an individual or the biogenic or hereditary aspects of criminal behaviour.
Heredity is the parental contribution made through 46 chromosomes. Of these, two determine sex of the infant and 44 affect other qualities of the body. Combinations and permutations among genes determine an infant's particular genotype, that is, genetic contribution of an organism.
Lombroso, an Italian physician and professor of clinical psychiatry and criminal anthropology, and described as the "father of criminology", propounded the theory of evolutionary atavism also called theory of physical criminal type, or theory of born criminals in Thus, according to Lombroso, atavism and degeneracy are the basic causes of crime.
Initially, Lombroso came out with only one type of criminals the born criminals a term which, in fact, was introduced by Ferri but later on he identified two other types of criminals too: Although Lombroso obviously emphasised the biological causes of crime, he did not entirely neglect, as erroneously claimed by many critics, the sociological causes.
While going through his later works, one reaches this obvious conclusion. Lombroso's research had serious methodological problems. Of these, Reid op. One, he depended on collection of facts which were limited to organic factors. Although, he realised the importance of psychic factors, yet he found them hard to measure.
Two, his method was mainly descriptive and not experimental. Three, his generalisations about atavism and degeneracy left a large gap between theory and fact. Four, his method was largely one of analogy and anecdote, from which he drew his conclusions.
Such a method is unscientific for drawing generalisations. Instead, we must replace punishment by treatment. A panel of experts should diagnose the condition of the individual and prescribe appropriate treatment.
He thus holds that punitive response, as advocated by classicist theorists, is applicable. Charles Goring, an English psychiatrist and philosopher, criticised Lombroso's theory on the basis of his own study in which he measured the characteristics of 3, English convicts and a large number of non-criminals in He maintained that there was no such thing as a 'physical criminal type'.
However, he himself explained crime on the basis of hereditary factors Goring's work was also criticised because Reid, He measured intelligence not by the available Simon-Binet tests but by his own impression of the mental ability of criminals; 2 He completely ignored the impact of environment on crime; 3 The sample of non-criminals which included undergraduate university students, inmates of a hospital, mental patients and soldiers was defective; and 4 He was violently prejudiced against Lombroso.
Garofalo and Ferri had supported Lombroso in his biological school. Garofalo in his book Criminology, published in its English translation appeared intalked of physical differences between criminals and non-criminals, but he differed from Lombroso in the emphasis he Lombroso placed on the physical abnormality of the criminal.
Garofalo was not sure whether or not physical abnormality of the criminal was caused by physiological factors.Discuss psychological theory of crime In the past few years, there have been several studies on psychopathic personalities.
Psychopathology has always been considered a psychological theory of crime.
With these new studies (where they have tested the firing neurons in the brain), there is now In the past few years, there have been several . The biological theory of crime, or biological positivism, argues that crime is mainly due to physical and mental degeneracies in criminals and criminals are biologically inferior.
The biological theories of crime causation focus on genetic, neurological, bio-chemical, and physiological elements that have influence the behavior of criminals. Biological explanations of crime assert that particular individuals are more prone to deviance than others because of their genetic makeup (Haralambos, van Krieken, Smith & Holborn, p).
These explanations of human behavior became popular in the nineteenth century. What is the essence of the biological theory of crime?
What are the psychological characteristics of a potential criminal? Psychological and biological theories of crime in criminology essay. Table of content: o Introduction. o Peculiarities of criminology. o Biological theories in criminology.
o Psychological theories in criminology. Biological Theories of Crime. The positivists (who used experimental or inductive method in making generalisations) rejected the concept of 'free will' advocated by the classicists and the neo-classicists and laid emphasis on the doctrine of 'determinism'.
Biological Theories of Crime These theories are provided by contemporary criminologist who relates the interaction between surrounding social and physical environments with biological influences and how it in turn shapes behavioral propensity and criminal activities too.