How do you calculate cardiac output formula? Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Which arteries or veins carries oxygenated blood?
Functions of the Heart The functions of the heart are as follows: Variations in the rate and force of heart contraction match blood flow to the changing metabolic needs of the tissues during rest, exercise, and changes in body position.
Contractions of the heart produce blood pressure, which is needed for blood flow through the blood vessels. Securing one-way blood flow. The valves of the heart secure a one-way blood flow through the heart and blood vessels. The heart separates the pulmonary and systemic circulations, which ensures the flow of oxygenated blood to tissues.
Anatomy of the Heart The cardiovascular system can be compared to a muscular pump equipped with one-way valves and a system of large and small plumbing tubes within which the blood travels.
Heart Structure and Functions The modest size and weight of the heart give few hints of its incredible strength. Snugly enclosed within the inferior mediastinum, the medial cavity of the thorax, the heart is flanked on each side by the lungs.
Its broad posterosuperior aspect, or base, from which the great vessels of the body emerge, points toward the right shoulder and lies beneath the second rib. The heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the pericardium and is the outermost layer of the heart.
The loosely fitting superficial part of this sac is referred to as the fibrous pericardium, which helps protect the heart and anchors it to surrounding structures such as the diaphragm and sternum. Deep to the fibrous pericardium is the slippery, two-layer serous pericardium, where its parietal layer lines the interior of the fibrous pericardium.
Layers of the Heart The heart muscle has three layers and they are as follows: The epicardium or the visceral and outermost layer is actually a part of the heart wall. The myocardium consists of thick bundles of cardiac muscle twisted and whirled into ringlike arrangements and it is the layer that actually contracts.
The endocardium is the innermost layer of the heart and is a thin, glistening sheet of endothelium hat lines the heart chambers.
Chambers of the Heart The heart has four hollow chambers, or cavities: The two superior atria are primarily the receiving chambers, they play a lighter role in the pumping activity of the heart.
The two inferior, thick-walled ventricles are the discharging chambers, or actual pumps of the heart wherein when they contract, blood is propelled out of the heart and into the circulation. The septum that divides the heart longitudinally is referred to as either the interventricular septum or the interatrial septum, depending on which chamber it separates.
Associated Great Vessels The great blood vessels provide a pathway for the entire cardiac circulation to proceed. Superior and inferior vena cava. The heart receives relatively oxygen-poor blood from the veins of the body through the large superior and inferior vena cava and pumps it through the pulmonary trunk.
The pulmonary trunk splits into the right and left pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to the lungs, where oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is unloaded.
Oxygen-rich blood drains from the lungs and is returned to the left side of the heart through the four pulmonary veins. Blood returned to the left side of the heart is pumped out of the heart into the aorta from which the systemic arteries branch to supply essentially all body tissues.
Heart Valves The heart is equipped with four valves, which allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart chambers. Atrioventricular or AV valves are located between the atrial and ventricular chambers on each side, and they prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract.
The left AV valve- the bicuspid or mitral valve, consists of two flaps, or cusps, of endocardium.
The right AV valve, the tricuspid valve, has three flaps. The second set of valves, the semilunar valves, guards the bases of the two large arteries leaving the ventricular chambers, thus they are known as the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves.
Cardiac Circulation Vessels Although the heart chambers are bathed with blood almost continuously, the blood contained in the heart does not nourish the myocardium. The coronary arteries branch from the base of the aorta and encircle the heart in the coronary sulcus atrioventricular groove at the junction of the atria and ventricles, and these arteries are compressed when the ventricles are contracting and fill when the heart is relaxed.
The myocardium is drained by several cardiac veins, which empty into an enlarged vessel on the posterior of the heart called the coronary sinus.
Blood Vessels Blood circulates inside the blood vessels, which form a closed transport system, the so-called vascular system. As the heart beats, blood is propelled into large arteries leaving the heart.
It then moves into successively smaller and smaller arteries and then into arterioles, which feed the capillary beds in the tissues. Capillary beds are drained by venules, which in turn empty into veins that finally empty into the great veins entering the heart.
Tunics Except for the microscopic capillaries, the walls of the blood vessels have three coats or tunics. The tunica intima, which lines the lumen, or interior, of the vessels, is a thin layer of endothelium resting on a basement membrane and decreases friction as blood flows through the vessel lumen.
The tunica media is the bulky middle coat which mostly consists of smooth muscle and elastic fibers that constrict or dilate, making the blood pressure increase or decrease.
The tunica externa is the outermost tunic composed largely of fibrous connective tissue, and its function is basically to support and protect the vessels. Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation The major branches of the aorta and the organs they serve are listed next in sequence from the heart.
Arterial Branches of the Ascending Aorta The aorta springs upward from the left ventricle of heart as the ascending aorta.Start studying A & P 2 - Chapter Cardiovascular System, The Heart - Study Guide.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. An Online Interactive Study Guide to Tutorials and quizzes on the anatomy and physiology of the heart, using interactive animations and plombier-nemours.com Anatomy.
Coronary Arteries The cardiac arteries run along the surface of the heart, carrying oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Heart: Study Guide on Cardiovascular System Essay Body Systems Cardiovascular System - relates to the heart, blood vessels and circulation in the body.
The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, refers to the network that transports blood throughout the body. It is composed of the heart, blood vessels, and .
Start studying A & P 2 - Chapter Cardiovascular System, The Heart - Study Guide. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
The heart, blood, and blood vessels are the major components of the cardiovascular system. Like the bustling factory, the body must have a transportation system to carry its various cargos back and forth, and this is where the cardiovascular system steps in.
• Event Supervisor Guide has event preparation tips, • Cardiovascular System (new for B&C) • Immune System (new for Div. B) • Integumentary System • Major Diseases ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF THE HEART 1. Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)-Pacemaker of the heart 2.