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Abstract The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes.
Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties.
This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed.
Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations.
People on all continents have long applied poultices and imbibed infusions of hundreds, if not thousands, of indigenous plants, dating back to prehistory. There is evidence that Neanderthals living 60, years ago in present-day Microbiocidal effects of pure and ethanolic used plants such as hollyhock; these plants are still widely used in ethnomedicine around the world.
Historically, therapeutic results have been mixed; quite often cures or symptom relief resulted. Poisonings occurred at a high rate, also. Currently, of the one-quarter to one-half of all pharmaceuticals dispensed in the United States having higher-plant origins, very few are intended for use as antimicrobials, since we have relied on bacterial and fungal sources for these activities.
Since the advent of antibiotics in the s, the use of plant derivatives as antimicrobials has been virtually nonexistent. Clinical microbiologists have two reasons to be interested in the topic of antimicrobial plant extracts.
First, it is very likely that these phytochemicals will find their way into the arsenal of antimicrobial drugs prescribed by physicians; several are already being tested in humans see below.
It is reported that, on average, two or three antibiotics derived from microorganisms are launched each year After a downturn in that pace in recent decades, the pace is again quickening as scientists realize that the effective life span of any antibiotic is limited.
New sources, especially plant sources, are also being investigated. Second, the public is becoming increasingly aware of problems with the overprescription and misuse of traditional antibiotics.
In addition, many people are interested in having more autonomy over their medical care. A multitude of plant compounds often of unreliable purity is readily available over-the-counter from herbal suppliers and natural-food stores, and self-medication with these substances is commonplace.
The use of plant extracts, as well as other alternative forms of medical treatments, is enjoying great popularity in the late s. It is speculated that the American public may be reacting to overprescription of sometimes toxic drugs, just as their predecessors of the 19th century see below reacted to the overuse of bleeding, purging, and calomel Brief History It is estimated that there aretospecies of plants on Earth It is possible that even more are used for medicinal purposes Hippocrates in the late fifth century B.
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Phytochemical and Nutritive Qualities of Dried Seeds of Buchholzia Coriacea. Ibrahim TA 1 * and Fagbohun ED 2. 1 Department of Food Science & Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .Alkaloids are heterocyclc nitrogenous compound and has been found to have microbiocidal effects .
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While alkaloids have been found to have microbiocidal effects (including against Giardia and Entamoeba species), both “pure” single-plant preparations and mixed formulations. The preparations have lyrical names, such as and of an ethanolic extract of Piper longumfruits, probably containing the alkaloid piperine.
May 01, · The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. products, garlic juice had the highest activity.
The most active processed products were peppermint oil and the four pure. Effects of ethanolic extracts of garlic, ginger and rosemary Akponah et al.
Table 7. only exhibited microbiostatic rather than microbiocidal effects and hence it may be necessary to step-up concentrations of these extracts in future studies. The.