In this module, the four approaches to quantitative research are described and examples are provided. List and explain the four approaches to quantitative research. Provide an example of each method. Describe how to identify the appropriate approach for a particular research problem.
Early history[ edit ] Henry Chadwicka sportswriter in New York, developed the box score in Sabermetrics research began in the middle of the 20th century. Earnshaw Cook was one of the earliest researchers who contributed to this idea.
Cook gathered the majority of his research into his book, Percentage Baseball. The book was the first of its kind to gain national media attention,  although it was widely criticized and not accepted by most baseball organizations.
The Quantitative approaches essay of advanced baseball statistics did not become prominent in the baseball community until Bill James began writing his annual Baseball Abstracts in He used his results in an unsuccessful attempt to promote the idea that he should bat second in the lineup to his manager Earl Weaver.
Wright was another employee in Major League Baseball, working with the Texas Rangers in the early s. During his time with the Rangers, he became known as the first front office employee in MLB history to work under the title Sabermetrician.
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This initially began with Sandy Alderson as the former general manager of the team when he used the principles toward obtaining relatively undervalued players. This was a historic moment for the franchise, in which the 20th game was played at the Alameda County Coliseum.
Ina film based on Lewis' book also called Moneyball was released to further provide insight into the techniques used in the Oakland Athletics' front office. Traditional measurements[ edit ] Sabermetrics was created in Quantitative approaches essay attempt for baseball fans to learn about the sport through objective evidence.
This is performed by evaluating players in every aspect of the game, specifically batting, pitching, and fielding. These evaluation measures are usually phrased in terms of either runs or team wins as older statistics were deemed ineffective.
Batting measurements[ edit ] The traditional measure of batting performance is considered to be the batting average. To calculate the batting average, the number of base hits was divided by the total number of at-bats. To calculate the slugging percentage, the total number of bases of all hits is divided by the total numbers of time at bat.
Stephen Jay Gould proposed that the disappearance of. On-base plus slugging is the sum of the on-base percentage and the slugging percentage. This modern statistic has become useful in comparing players and is a powerful method of predicting runs scored from a certain player.
It is calculated by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine because of the nine innings.
This statistic provides the number of runs that a pitcher allows per game. It has proven to be flawed as it does not separate the ability of the pitcher from the abilities of the fielders that he plays with.
Winning percentage is calculated by dividing wins by the number of decisions wins plus losses. This statistic can also be flawed as it is dependent on the pitcher's teammates' performances at the plate and in the field.
Sabermetricians have attempted to find different measures of pitching performance that does not include the performances of the fielders involved. This led to the creation of defense independent pitching statistics DIPS system.
Voros McCracken has been credited with the development of this system in Baseball Prospectus created another statistics called the peripheral ERA. This measure of a pitcher's performance takes hits, walks, home runs allowed, and strikeouts while adjusting for ballpark factors.
Others have created various means of attempting to quantify individual pitches based on characteristics of the pitch, as opposed to runs earned or balls hit. Higher mathematics[ edit ] Value over replacement player VORP is considered a popular sabermetric statistic.
This statistic demonstrates how much a player contributes to his team in comparison to a fake replacement player that performs below average. Wins above replacement WAR is another popular sabermetric statistic that will evaluate a player's contributions to his team. Structured quantitative analysis is capable of explaining many aspects of the game, for example, to examine how often a team should attempt to steal.
For example, if a runner is being sent home from third, related rates can be used to show if a throw from the outfield would have been on time or if it was correctly cut off before the plate.
Momentum and force[ edit ] Momentum and force is a similar application of calculus in baseball. Particularly, the average force on a bat while hitting a ball can be calculated by combining different concepts within applied calculus.
First, the change in the ball's Momentum by the external force F t must be calculated. The momentum can be found by multiplying the mass and velocity. The external force F t is a continuous function of time Applications[ edit ] Sabermetrics can be used for multiple purposes, but the most common are evaluating past performance and predicting future performance to determine a player's contributions to his team.Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches - Kindle edition by Keith F Punch.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches.
Quantitative Approaches. In this module, the four approaches to quantitative research are described and examples are provided. Learning Objectives. What this handout is about.
This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative approaches to research This essay will compare and contrast the 3 articles below in relation to qualitative and quantitative approaches to research focusing on the design and methods used in each study including sampling, data collection and data analysis.
Free Essay: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES TO SOCIAL RESEARCH Christina Hughes [email protected] There has been widespread debate in recent. THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION. Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups.