Overview Union flag In the presidential electionRepublicansled by Abraham Lincolnsupported banning slavery in all the U. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery. The Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally, thus Lincoln was constitutionally elected president. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the south as starting in with Emancipation and the Port Royal experiment rather than Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war began, and commenced in earnest after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamationissued on January 1, Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in TennesseeArkansasand Louisiana during the war.
He experimented by giving land to blacks in South Carolina. By fallthe new President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity and the ending of slavery achieved and reconstruction completed. Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnson's lenient terms, rejected new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before.
Johnson broke with the Republicans after vetoing two key bills that supported the Freedmen's Bureau and provided federal civil rights to the freedmen. The Congressional elections turned on the issue of Reconstruction, producing a sweeping Republican victory in the North, and providing the Radical Republicans with sufficient control of Congress to override Johnson's vetoes and commence their own "Radical Reconstruction" in In ten states,  coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North carpetbaggersand white Southerners who supported Reconstruction scalawags cooperated to form Republican biracial state governments.
They introduced various reconstruction programs including: Conservative opponents called the Republican regimes corrupt and instigated violence toward freedmen and whites who supported Reconstruction.
Most of the violence was carried out by members of the Ku Klux Klan KKKa secretive terrorist organization closely allied with the southern Democratic Party. Klan members attacked and intimidated blacks seeking to exercise their new civil rights, as well as Republican politicians in the south favoring those civil rights.
One such politician murdered by the Klan on the eve of the presidential election was Republican Congressman James M. Widespread violence in the south led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S.
Grant inwhich suppressed the Klan. Nevertheless, white Democratscalling themselves " Redeemers ", regained control of the south state by state, sometimes using fraud and violence to control state elections.
A deep national economic depression following the Panic of led to major Democratic gains in the North, the collapse of many railroad schemes in the South, and a growing sense of frustration in the North. The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states.
With the Compromise ofmilitary intervention in Southern politics ceased and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in the South.
This was followed by a period which white Southerners labeled "Redemption", during which white-dominated state legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws and, beginning indisenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites through a combination of constitutional amendments and electoral laws.
The white Democratic Southerners' memory of Reconstruction played a major role in imposing the system of white supremacy and second-class citizenship for blacks using laws known as Jim Crow laws.
Intense controversy erupted throughout the South over these issues. By the s, Reconstruction had officially provided freedmen with equal rights under the constitution, and blacks were voting and taking political office.
Republican legislatures, coalitions of whites and blacks, established the first public school systems and numerous charitable institutions in the South. White paramilitary organizationsespecially the Ku Klux Klan and also the White League and Red Shirts formed with the political aim of driving out the Republicans.
They also disrupted political organizing and terrorized blacks to bar them from the polls. From toconservative whites calling themselves " Redeemers " regained power in the Southern states.
They joined the Bourbon wing of the national Democratic Party. In the s and s the terms "radical" and "conservative" had distinctive meanings.The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States (U.S.) from to The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S.
history.. Largely as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of blacks, war broke out in April , when secessionist forces attacked . Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory [David W.
Blight] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. No historical event has left as deep an imprint on America's collective memory as the Civil War.
In the war's aftermath.
The end of the combat of arms in April began the combat of memory over the meanings of the American Civil War. For Southern whites and freed former slaves the stakes could not have been higher. The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States (U.S.) from to The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S.
history. Largely as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April , when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after. This course explores the causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War, from the s to The primary goal of the course is to understand the multiple meanings of a transforming event in American history.
Those meanings may be defined in many ways: national, sectional, racial.
This course explores the causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War, from the s to The primary goal of the course is to understand the multiple meanings of a transforming event in American history.