The affirmative action as the civil rights policy in the united states of america

Most people recognize that to be economically competitive and socially just, America needs to draw upon the talents of students from all backgrounds. Moreover, the education of all students is enriched when they can learn from classmates who have different sets of life experiences. At the same time, however, many Americans—including several members of the U.

The affirmative action as the civil rights policy in the united states of america

Education Program Affirmative action policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society. Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education. In institutions of higher education, affirmative action refers to admission policies that provide equal access to education for those groups that have been historically excluded or underrepresented, such as women and minorities.

Controversy surrounding the constitutionality of affirmative action programs has made the topic one of heated debate.

Affirmative Action | Overview

InPresident Kennedy was the first to use the term "affirmative action" in an Executive Order that directed government contractors to take "affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.

Affirmative action policies initially focused on improving opportunities for African Americans in employment and education. Board of Education decision in outlawing school segregation and the Civil Rights Act of improved life prospects for African Americans.

Inhowever, only five percent of undergraduate students, one percent of law students, and two percent of medical students in the country were African American.

The Stakes

President Lyndon Johnson, an advocate for affirmative action, signed an Executive Order in that required government contractors to use affirmative action policies in their hiring to increase the number of minority employees. In the following years, colleges and universities began adopting similar recruitment policies, and over time the enrollment rates for African American and Latino students increased steadily.

According to data from the National Center on Education Statistics NCESin70 percent of white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 56 percent of African American graduates and 61 percent of Hispanic graduates.

The updated report finds that in69 percent of white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 65 percent of African American graduates and 63 percent of Hispanic graduates. The Affirmative Action Debate The use of race as a factor in the college admissions process has been, and continues to be, a hotly debated topic.

Supporters of affirmative action make the following arguments: Affirmative action is more of a process than just an admissions policy.

Colleges and universities reach out to groups that are underrepresented and urge students to apply. Institutions often offer financial aid to underrepresented students and provide on-campus support programs to improve their academic success. Affirmative action programs have resulted in doubling or tripling the number of minority applications to colleges or universities, and have made colleges and universities more representative of their surrounding community.

Statistics show that after California abolished its affirmative action programs inthe minority student admissions at UC Berkeley fell 61 percent, and minority admissions at UCLA fell 36 percent.

Graduates who benefited from affirmative action programs say that they have received better jobs, earned more money, and ultimately are living better lives because of the opportunity they received. Diversity in higher education provides an educational advantage for all students, both personally and intellectually.

We exist in a global, multicultural society, and in order to achieve success, employers and employees must be able to work effectively with the diverse society that surrounds them.

Affirmative action policies are necessary in order to compensate for centuries of racial, social, and economic oppression.

The affirmative action as the civil rights policy in the united states of america

Generally, individuals with higher socioeconomic status have more opportunities than those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.In the United States, affirmative action in employment and education has been the subject of legal and political controversy, and in , a pair of US A class-based affirmative action policy was incorporated into the admission practices of the four most selective The Civil Rights Acts do not cover veterans, people with disabilities, or.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing its final rule to amend the regulations that require federal agencies to engage in affirmative action for individuals with disabilities.

These changes clarify the obligations that the Rehabilitation Act of imposes on. The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights is a coalition charged by its diverse membership of more than national organizations to promote and protect the civil and human rights of all persons in the United States.

Aug 24,  · Even With Affirmative Action, Blacks and Hispanics Are More Underrepresented at Top Colleges Than 35 Years Ago. Affirmative action, in the United States, in order to improve opportunities for African Americans while civil rights legislation was dismantling the legal basis for discrimination.

challenge to the use of affirmative action in the admissions policy of a state-operated law school was moot because, by the time the case was argued before. Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the United Kingdom, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of promoting the education and employment of members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.

Historically and internationally, support for affirmative action has sought.

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